>

巴黎人baliren登陆-巴黎人官网

从研发到制造到物流,物联网系统的增长最为显

- 编辑:巴黎人baliren登陆 -

从研发到制造到物流,物联网系统的增长最为显

原标题:看物联网如何影响当今7大关键行业

图片 1

BY MICHAEL E. PORTER AND JAMES E. HEPPELMANN

单一的方式无法定义物联网(IoT)——无论是在系统类型还是在使用案例中,物联网都因行业而异。不同领域之间的物联网大相径庭,为了深入了解物联网对各行业的影响,福布斯(Forbes Insight)与英特尔(Intel)合作,对700名熟悉其单位物联网项目实施的高管进行了调查。

根据埃森哲的最新预测,到2020年,1/4的全球经济会被数字化,但这一预测并没有告诉我们整个故事。因为所有的商业流程都不仅仅在经历数码化-从模拟到数字信号-更进一步是在经历数字化-这一转变将把实体和虚拟混合在一起。

There is a fundamental disconnect between the wealth of digital data available to us and the physical world in which we apply it. While reality is threedimensional, the rich data we now have to inform our decisions and actions remains trapped on two-dimensional pages and screens. This gulf between the real and digital worlds limits our ability to take advantage of the torrent of information and insights produced by billions of smart, connected products (SCPs) worldwide.

图片 2

许多组织对此无能为力。事实上,根据Forester数据,只有5%的的公司宣称他们已经熟练利用数字化转型取得了竞争性差异,对制造型企业来说这一挑战更为严峻。从研发到制造到物流,都能看到运营业务在被数字化科技改变。

Augmented reality, a set of technologies that superimposes digital data and images on the physical world, promises to close this gap and release untapped and uniquely human capabilities. Though still in its infancy, AR is poised to enter the mainstream; according to one estimate, spending on AR technology will hit $60 billion in 2020. AR will affect companies in every industry and many other types of organizations, from universities to social enterprises. In the coming months and years, it will transform how we learn, make decisions, and interact with the physical world. It will also change how enterprises serve customers, train employees, design and create products, and manage their value chains, and, ultimately,how they compete.

图片来源于ISTOCK

从研发部门开始,研发数字化转型的四条道路如下:

In this article we describe what AR is, its evolving technology and applications, and why it is so important. Its significance will grow exponentially as SCPs proliferate, because it amplifies their power to create value and reshape competition. AR will become the new interface between humans and machines, bridging the digital and physical worlds. While challenges in deploying it remain, pioneering organizations, such as Amazon, Facebook, General Electric, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Navy, are already implementing AR and seeing a major impact on quality and productivity. Here we provide a road map for how companies should deploy AR and explain the critical choices they will face in integrating it into strategy and operations.

调查显示,在制造业和金融服务业,物联网系统的增长最为显著。这二者中,分别有47%和42%的业内高管表示,过去三年,他们的网络覆盖增长速度超过了10%。

Fully one-quarter of the world’s economy will be digital by 2020, forecasts a new report from Accenture. But that prediction doesn’t tell the whole story. Because increasingly, all business processes will be not only digitized – converted from analog to digital – but also digitalized – transformed in a way that blurs the physical and virtual.

WHAT IS AUGMENTED REALITY?

调查发现,金融服务、医疗保健和制造业是物联网思维的领头羊。多数情况下,他们正将物联网性能与强大的高级分析或人工智能联系起来。接近六成的金融服务业高管(约占58%)表示,他们拥有完善的物联网计划,其次是医疗机构(约占55%)。在制造业和金融服务业,物联网系统的增长最为显著。这二者中,分别有47%和42%的业内高管表示,过去三年,他们的网络覆盖增长速度超过了10%。

Many organizations are struggling to respond. In fact, only five percent of companies say they’ve mastered digital transformation to the point of competitive differentiation, according to Forrester.

Isolated applications of AR have been around for decades, but only recently have the technologies required to unleash its potential become available. At the core, AR transforms volumes of data and analytics into images or animations that are overlaid on the real world. Today most AR applications are delivered through mobile devices, but increasingly delivery will shift to hands-free wearables such as head-mounted displays or smart glasses. Though many people are familiar with simple AR entertainment applications, such as Snapchat filters and the game Pokémon Go, AR is being applied in far more consequential ways in both consumer and business-to-business settings. For example, AR “heads-up” displays that put navigation, collision warning, and other information directly in drivers’ line of sight are now available in dozens of car models. Wearable AR devices for factory workers that superimpose productionassembly or service instructions are being piloted at thousands of companies. AR is supplementing or replacing traditional manuals and training methods at an ever-faster pace.

那么,通信、能源、金融服务、医疗、制造业、零售业和运输业的高管们是如何将物联网“为我所用”的呢?请继续阅读本文。

The challenge is especially acute for manufacturers. From innovation to production to logistics, manufacturers are seeing their operations revolutionized by digital technologies.

More broadly, AR enables a new information-delivery paradigm, which we believe will have a profound impact on how data is structured, managed, and delivered on the internet. Though the web transformed how information is collected, transmitted, and accessed, its model for data storage and delivery—pages on flat screens—has major limits: It requires people to mentally translate 2-D information for use in a 3-D world. That isn’t always easy, as anyone who has used a manual to fix an office copier knows. By superimposing digital information directly on real objects or environments, AR allows people to process the physical and digital simultaneously, eliminating the need to mentally bridge the two. That improves our ability to rapidly and accurately absorb information, make decisions, and execute required tasks quickly and efficiently.

1

That starts with research and development. Here are four key ways digitalization is transforming R&D:

AR displays in cars are a vivid illustration of this. Until recently, drivers using GPS navigation had to look at a map on a flat screen and then figure out how to apply it in the real world. To take the correct exit from a busy rotary, for example, the driver needed to shift his or her gaze between the road and the screen and mentally connect the image on the map to the proper turnoff. AR heads-up displays lay navigational images directly over what the driver sees through the windshield. This reduces the mental effort of applying the information, prevents distraction, and minimizes driver error, freeing people to focus on the road. (For more on this, see the sidebar “Enhancing Human Decision Making.”)

通信

1. 终端消费者更自主

科技给予用户更多自由。如今用户已经拥有及时和稳定的信息,包括产品、质量和价格 – 无论是你还是你的竞争对手。过去,如果你已经是某个领域的领导者,竞争者处于劣势。今天,用户们知道你是如何在世界范围和对手们较量的,你过去的市场领导者地位变得无关紧要。

这不光是销售和市场的问题,这也变成研发的问题,因为他们必须用最快的速度对客户改变的需求进行反应,好消息是科技已经有了解决方案。例如,重新设计智能产品,利用了物联网(IoT)传感器,研发人员可以获取使用数据去了解客户的需要,以及产品表现数据,可用来学习以及快速改进产品。

AR is making advances in consumer markets, but its emerging impact on human performance is even greater in industrial settings. Consider how Newport News Shipbuilding, which designs and builds U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, uses AR near the end of its manufacturing process to inspect a ship, marking for removal steel construction structures that are not part of the finished carrier. Historically, engineers had to constantly compare the actual ship with complex 2-D blueprints. But with AR, they can now see the final design superimposed on the ship, which reduces inspection time by 96%—from 36 hours to just 90 minutes. Overall, time savings of 25% or more are typical for manufacturing tasks using AR.

对于电信供应商和其他通信公司来说,移动革命凸显了物联网的转型。在参与调查的通信公司中,约有一半(约占53%)的公司要么在流程中嵌入物联网,要么在关键业务领域中嵌入物联网。在通信公司,最普遍的物联网数据源包括音频设备(约占45%),其次是移动电话(约占42%)。最为普遍的应用是预防性维护(约占44%),其次是努力提高员工生产力(约占40%)。此外,超过三分之一的通信供应商在应用计算机视觉和分析技术以更好地理解、预测客户行为以及资产可行性方面处于领先地位,约38%的受访者表示,他们已经在企业的各部门间实现了可视化分析。

1. End consumers are more empowered

Technology has put consumers in the driver’s seat. Customers now have instant, constant access to information about products, quality, and pricing – for both you and your competitors. In the past, if you had established yourself as a leader in a region, the competition was at a disadvantage. Today, customers know how you stack up against rivals around the world, and your past market leadership is irrelevant. This isn’t just a problem for sales and marketing. It’s also a problem for R&D, which must respond – in as near to real time as possible – to changing customer demands. The good news is that technology is also the solution. For example, by designing smart products that leverage Internet of Things (IoT) sensors, R&D can capture usage data to understand customer desires and capture performance data to learn how to improve products rapidly.

AR’S KEY CAPABILITIES

2

2. 透明化重建生产者合作的方式

信息化正在改变制造业内部以及供应商打交道的方式。这对每个部门都适用,尤其是研发部。

当研发新的智能产品时,需要的研发技巧在改变。汽车行业就是个很好的例子。十五年前,汽车开始使用电子化,例如发动机控制系统。今天,几乎所有的汽车研发都可以看到。十年内,电子化会让汽车朝无人驾驶的方向发展。

这会极大地改变汽车的设计。过去,机械工程师领导着汽车设计,电子只不过是点缀。时至今日,软件开发-和之前很不一样的需求和设计周期-开始进入整个流程。在汽车行业以及几乎每个行业,产品设计都在带入新的利益相关者,就必须考虑采用新方法来合作。

As we’ve previously explained (see “How Smart, Connected Products Are Transforming Competition,” HBR, November 2014), the SCPs spreading

能源

2. Transparency is rewriting how manufacturers collaborate

Information access is changing the way manufacturers interact both internally and with suppliers. This is true for every function, but especially for R&D.

As R&D creates more smart products, the skills it requires are changing. The automotive industry is a case in point. Fifteen years ago, cars began to incorporate electronics such as engine-control systems. Today, electronics are where most automotive R&D is happening, and within 10 years, electronics will allow cars to pretty much drive themselves.

That dramatically changes how cars are designed. In the past, mechanical engineers led design efforts, and electronics were merely an add-on. Today, software development – with its very different requirements and design cycles – is integral to the process. In the automotive industry and in virtually every other industry, product design will involve new stakeholders who must work together in new ways.

through our homes, workplaces, and factories allow users to monitor product operations and conditions in real time, control and customize product operations remotely, and optimize product performance using real-time data. And in some cases, intelligence and connectivity allow SCPs to be fully autonomous.

能源公司倾向于将业务分散到偏远地区,如需要持续检测的油气田。能源行业近一半的高管(约占47%)指出,他们要么在选定的职能部门实施了物联网,要么在其业务领域进行了广泛的物联网部署。主要数据源包括机械装置(约占49%)和机器人(约占46%)。能源公司正转向用物联网来监控资产表现(约占45%)、提升客户体验(约占43%)和提高整体效率(约占40%)。有三分之一(约占34%)的受访者表示,他们已经在企业内部深入部署了视觉分析。例如,安装在摄像头上的无人机可以帮助企业监控生产场地及设施的健康和安全,在异常情况成为危险之前就发现它们。

3. 商业模型越来越灵活

过去,产品设计师们为销售产品的公司服务。但越来越多的情况下,公司不在卖产品,而是卖服务。这给研发带来根本性的影响。

一个很好的例子是SAP的中型企业客户生产工业用气体压缩机。前几年,它们意识到顾客要的不是气体压缩机,而是压缩气。然后他们就开始提供给顾客压缩气体,作为一项服务。在这之前,他们设计和生产空气压缩机,并卖给顾客。现在,他们设计和生产空气压缩机,装到顾客的公司,然后赚顾客压缩气的钱。

这一崭新的商业模式会改变研发部是如何安排设计的。第一,需要设计物联网传感器来实时监控压缩机,同时保证预测性维护。第二,需要优化维护的长期性和易用性。公司实现的一个方法是让工程师定期和现场服务人员沟通,第一时间了解机器是怎么运行的。

AR powerfully magnifies the value created by those capabilities. Specifically, it improves how users visualize and therefore access all the new monitoring data, how they receive and follow instructions and guidance on product operations, and even how they interact with and control the products themselves.

3

3. Business models are growing more flexible

In the past, product designers worked for companies that sold products. But increasingly, manufacturers will sell not products but services. That affects R&D in fundamental ways.

A good example is a midsize SAP client that makes industrial air compressors. Some years ago it realized customers wanted not air compressors but compressed air. So it began offering compressed air as a service. Before this time, it designed and manufactured air compressors and then sold them to customers. Now, it designs and manufactures air compressors, installs them at customer sites, and then charges for the compressed air customers consume.

That new business model changes how R&D develops products. First, it needs to design in IoT sensors to monitor the compressors in real time and enable predictive maintenance. Second, it needs to optimize longevity and ease of maintenance. One way the company achieves that is by having engineers regularly spend time with field service to see firsthand how equipment is performing.

X-ray vision, revealing internal features that would be difficult to see otherwise. At the medical device company AccuVein, for instance, AR technology converts the heat signature of a patient’s veins into an image that is superimposed on the skin, making the veins easier for clinicians to locate. This dramatically improves the success rate of blood draws and other vascular procedures. AR more than triples the likelihood of a successful needle stick on the first try and reduces the need for “escalations” (calling for assistance, for example) by 45%.

金融服务

4. 商业流程变得越来越面向顾客

事实上,83%采访对象相信数字化正在从供给侧的规模经济效应向建立在顾客和合作伙伴相互关系上的需求侧的经济。公司必须和顾客连接更紧密,这是新的商业模型的需要。再来看空气压缩机的例子,公司并没有投资在资本密集型的空气压缩机上,而仅仅是签订压缩气的合同。合同的最后,如果切换到更便宜的合同会要求点补偿。同样的模式将会运用在好多其他行业的产品上。

Bosch Rexroth, a global provider of power units and controls used in manufacturing, uses an AR-enhanced visualization to demonstrate the design and capabilities of its smart, connected CytroPac hydraulic power unit. The AR application allows customers to see 3-D representations of the unit’s internal pump and cooling options in multiple configurations and how subsystems fit together.

金融服务机构具有高度安全意识,因此越来越依赖网络摄像头和其他视觉传感器,以确保其设施的可行性。如上所述,金融服务在物联网部署方面处于领先地位,58%的调查对象具有一定程度的能力。在视觉分析采用方面,这一领域的公司也遥遥领先——51%的公司报告说,他们已经开发并实现了将摄像头和视觉传感器连接到人工智能和分析系统上的能力。对金融公司来说,手机是首选的终端设备(约51%的受访者选择了手机),还有摄像头和传感器(约占48%)。虽然金融公司在物联网工作中有多个目标,但显然首先要解决的是扩大网络连通性(约占31%),并将物联网作为提高安全性的工具(约占30%)。

4. Business processes are becoming more customer centric

In fact, 83% of executives believe digitalization is driving a shift from supply-side economies of scale to demand-side economies based on interconnection with customers and partners, according to the Accenture report.

Manufacturers will have to be more connected to customers, because new business models will demand it. Take the air compressor customer. It hasn’t invested in a capital-intensive air compressor; it’s simply contracted for compressed air. At the end of the contract, there’s little disincentive to switching to a more attractive contract. The same will be true for many products across many industries.

这将如何改变研发呢?为了保持核心差异,设计周期必将要加速。例如,很多汽车制造商只是当顾客来店里维修时更新电子类。Tesla与众不同,他们直接把新指标和功能做定期软件更新。如果竞争者也开始学的话,不要被吓着了。

总而言之,数字化经济起于顾客,终于顾客。顾客更有权力,所以公司必须变得更面向客户,没有哪个部门比研发部更合适的了。

How does that change R&D? Design cycles will have to accelerate to maintain competitive differentiation. For example, most carmakers update a car’s electronics only if the customer happens to come in for service. Tesla has upped the ante by sending new features and functions directly to the consumer through regular software updates. Don’t be surprised if its competitors start to follow.

Ultimately, the digital economy begins and ends with the customer. Customers are more empowered, so companies need to become more customer-centric. And nowhere is that more true than in R&D.

For more insight on the new customer-centric digital economy, see Customer Relationship Status: It’s Complicated.

图片 3


"本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转载及用于任何商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本人承担。本人同意简书平台在接获有关著作权人的通知后,删除文章。"

Instruct and guide. AR is already redefining instruction, training, and coaching. These critical functions, which improve workforce productivity, are inherently costly and labor-intensive and often deliver uneven results. Written instructions for assembly tasks, for instance, are frequently hard and timeconsuming to follow. Standard instructional videos aren’t interactive and can’t adapt to individual learning needs. In-person training is expensive and requires students and teachers to meet at a common site, sometimes repeatedly. And if the equipment about which students are being taught isn’t available, they may need extra training to transfer what they’ve learned to a real-world context.

4

AR addresses those issues by providing real-time, on-site, step-by-step visual guidance on tasks such as product assembly, machine operation, and warehouse picking. Complicated 2-D schematic representations of a procedure in a manual, for example, become interactive 3-D holograms that walk the user through the necessary processes. Little is left to the imagination or interpretation.

医疗保健

At Boeing, AR training has had a dramatic impact on the productivity and quality of complex aircraft manufacturing procedures. In one Boeing study, AR was used to guide trainees through the 50 steps required to assemble an aircraft wing section involving 30 parts. With the help of AR, trainees completed the work in 35% less time than trainees using traditional 2-D drawings and documentation. And the number of trainees with little or no experience who could perform the operation correctly the first time increased by 90%.

提到医疗保健,顾客担忧尤甚,他们希望不仅在病榻前受到照顾,而且在候诊室、急救室和商务办公室都能获得相应体验。当前,医疗机构在物联网方面也走在了前沿,55%的医疗机构已经部署了相当完善的设备。在医疗领域,音频设备和移动电话是最重要的使用中设备,46%的行业受访者都提到了这一点。医护监管是最普遍的用例(约占41%),还有设备监控和增强客户体验感(约占38%)。对大多数受访者来说(约占57%),他们还是采用视觉分析来提高客户服务和护理病患的水平。

图片 4

5

AR-enabled devices can also transmit what an on-site user is seeing to a remote expert, who can respond with immediate guidance. In effect, this instantly puts the expert at the user’s side, regardless of location. This capability not only improves worker performance but substantially reduces costs—as Lee Company, which sells and services building systems, has discovered. It uses AR to help its field technicians with installations and repairs. A remote expert can see what the tech is viewing through his or her AR device, guide the tech through the work to be done, and even annotate the tech’s view with instructions. Getting expert support from a central location in real time has increased Lee’s tech utilization dramatically. And, by reducing the number of repeat visits, Lee saves more than $500 per technician per month in labor and travel costs. The company calculates a return of $20 on every dollar invested in AR.

制造业

Interact. Traditionally, people have used physical controls such as buttons, knobs, and, more recently, built-in touchscreens to interact with products. With the rise of SCPs, apps on mobile devices have increasingly replaced physical controls and allowed users to operate products remotely.

制造商比其他行业的公司更依赖于重型机械来进行生产,因此,他们对了解机器性能有着浓厚的兴趣。制造业组织有一系列的机会——通过计算机视觉来管理和跟踪商品的运动,与人工智能增强系统相联系,可以在事件发生前预测甚至补救。但这不仅仅是管理机器的问题。总体而言,与其他行业集团相比,制造商正经历着物联网带来的最大转变。51%的制造业高管强烈赞同物联网正在为他们的组织开辟新的业务领域。此外,29%的制造业高管报告称,他们的物联网部署使他们能够提供新产品或服务,通信公司的这一比例为29%。大多数制造商(约占51%)声称他们所选择的业务领域是由物联网支持的,或者表示他们已经在企业广泛地部署了物联网。52%的制造商表示,他们也具备可视化分析能力,能够对资产和产品进行实时监控。移动电话和计算机系统是制造商物联网数据的主要来源(分别约占48%和47%),这一领域的主要用例是预防性维护(约占51%)和提高生产率(约占49%)。

AR takes the user interface to a whole new level. A virtual control panel can be superimposed directly on the product and operated using an AR  eadset, hand gestures, and voice commands. Soon, users wearing smart glasses will be able to simply gaze at or point to a product to activate a virtual user interface and operate it. A worker wearing smart glasses, for instance, will be able to walk a line of factory machines, see their performance parameters, and adjust each machine without physically touching it.

6

The interact capability of AR is still nascent in commercial products but is revolutionary. Reality Editor, an AR app developed by the Fluid Interfaces group at MIT’s Media Lab, provides a glimpse of how it is rapidly evolving. Reality Editor makes it easy to add an interactive AR experience to any SCP. With it, people can point a smartphone or a tablet at an SCP (or, eventually, look at it through smart glasses), “see” its digital interfaces and the capabilities that can be programmed, and link those capabilities to hand gestures or voice commands or even to another smart product. For example, Reality Editor can allow a user to see a smart light bulb’s controls for color and intensity and set up voice commands like “bright” and “mood” to activate them. Or different settings of the bulb can be linked to buttons on a smart light switch the user can place anywhere that’s convenient.

零售业

The technologies underpinning these capabilities are still emerging, but the accuracy of voice commands in noisy environments is improving, and advances in gesture and gaze tracking have been rapid. GE has already tested the use of voice commands in AR experiences that enable factory workers to perform complex wiring processes in wind turbines—and has achieved a 34% increase in productivity.

在零售中,销售上的情况并不局限于销售——顾客的行为和反应被研究、评估和衍化。在调查中,有一半的零售业高管(约占51%)表示,他们正在积极部署物联网工作——要么跨部门部署,要么跨企业广泛部署。大多数人(约占53%)也表示,在一定程度上使用了视觉分析,从而能够更好地理解客户的偏好和行为。最著名的物联网数据源包括计算机系统(约占51%)和传感器(约占47%)。对于零售组织,主要用例是启用业务转换(约占44%)和提供增强虚拟现实的培训(约占43%)。

COMBINING AR AND VIRTUAL REALITY

本文由巴黎人-智能硬件发布,转载请注明来源:从研发到制造到物流,物联网系统的增长最为显